Preheat oven to 220 degrees C. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper or a silicone baking mat.
Whisk peanut butter, pepper jelly, rice vinegar, soy sauce, fish sauce, sesame oil, garlic, red pepper flakes, and chili garlic sauce in a large bowl. Set aside.
Whisk mashed potato flakes, vegetable oil, kosher salt, black pepper, and cayenne pepper in a large shallow bowl. Add chicken wings and toss to coat.
Place coated chicken wings in a single layer on the prepared baking sheet. Bake in the preheated oven for 30 minutes. Remove from oven, turn wings over using tongs, and return to oven. Bake for 20 minutes.
Transfer chicken wings to the peanut pepper jelly mixture; toss to coat. Return chicken wings to baking sheet and bake in the oven for 5 minutes.